History of ARDF 无线电测向的历史

History of ARDF

 

The sport originated in Northern Europe and Eastern Europe in the late 1950s. Amateur radio was widely promoted in the schools of Northern and Eastern Europe as a modern scientific and technical activity. Most medium to large cities hosted one or more amateur radio clubs at which members could congregate and learn about the technology and operation of radio equipment. One of the activities that schools and radio clubs promoted was radio direction finding, an activity that had important civil defense applications during the Cold War. As few individuals in Europe had personal automobiles at the time, most of this radio direction finding activity took place on foot, in parks, natural areas, or school campuses. The sport of orienteering, popular in its native Scandinavia, had begun to spread to more and more countries throughoutEurope, including the nations of the Eastern Bloc. As orienteering became more popular and orienteering maps became more widely available, it was only natural to combine the two activities and hold radio direction finding events on orienteering maps.

这项运动起源于北欧和东欧在50年代末。业余无线电作为现代科学技术活动在北欧和东欧的学校被广泛推广。大多数大中型城市建立了一个或多个业余无线电俱乐部,在其中俱乐部成员可以集中并了解无线电设备的技术和操作。学校和无线电俱乐部提倡的其中一项运动就是是无线电测向,这项运动在冷战期间有具有重要的民防实践作用由于当时在欧洲很少人拥有个人汽车,大部分无线电测向活动主要靠双脚,在公园,自然区域,或校园。这项定向运动,在其本土斯堪德纳维亚半岛很流行,开始蔓延到越来越多的国家乃至整个欧洲,包括东欧各国。由于定向变得越来越流行,野外定向地图变得更加普及,它自然地将二者结合起来的运动,换句话说,这是一项需要无线电测向设备的定向越野比赛。

Interest in this kind of on-foot radio direction finding activity using detailed topographic maps for navigation spread throughout Scandinavia, Eastern and Central Europe, the Soviet Union, and the People’s Republic of China. Formal rules for the sport were first proposed in England and Denmark in the 1950s.[1] The first European Championship in the sport was held in 1961 in Stockholm,Sweden. Four additional international championships were held in Europe in the 1960s, and three more were held in the 1970s. The first World Championship was held in 1980 in Cetniewo, Poland, where competitors from eleven European and Asian countries participated. World Championships have been generally held in even-numbered years since 1984, although there was no World Championship in 1996, and there was a World Championship in 1997. Asian nations began sending national teams to international events in 1980, and teams from nations in Oceania and North America began competing in the 1990s. Athletes from twenty-six nations attended the 2000 World Championship in Nanjing, China, the first to be held outside of Europe.[dead link][2]

这项运动的乐趣在于使用无线电测向和详细的地形图上进行追踪,并传遍整个斯堪的纳维亚半岛,东欧,的中欧,在苏联中华人民共和国在在20世纪50年代,英格兰丹麦首次提出了对这项运动的正式规程。在这项运动第一个欧洲冠军出现在在1961年斯德哥尔摩。20世纪60年代另外四个国际锦标赛在欧洲举办,20世纪70年代举行了三个。第一届世界锦标赛于1980年举行的Cetniewo,波兰,来自十一个欧洲和亚洲国家的运动员参加了这次比赛。自1984年以来,世界业余无线电测向比赛开始在偶数年举办,虽然1996年没有世界锦标赛,但1997年补办了世界锦标赛。亚洲国家于1980年开始派遣国家队参加国际赛事,20世纪90年代,大洋洲北美的国际队伍加入竞争。来自26个国家的运动员参加了2000年世界锦标赛在南京,中国,这是第一个在欧洲以外的地区举行的世锦赛。死链接 ] [ 2 ]

A member of the Republic of Korea national team sprints to the finish line of an eighty meter ARDF course.一位韩国国家队的运动员在ARDF世锦赛80米波段的比赛中冲终点。

 

As the sport grew in the 1960s and 1970s, each nation devised its own set of rules and regulations. The need for more clearly defined and consistent rules for international competitions led to the formation of an ARDF working group by the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) in the late 1970s. The first ARDF event to use the new standardized rules was the 1980 World Championship. These rules have been revised and updated over the years, increasing the number of gender and age categories into which competitors are classified, as well as formalizing the start and finish line procedures.[3]While some variations exist, these standardized rules have since been used worldwide for ARDF competitions, and the IARU has become the principal international organization promoting the sport. The IARU divides the world into three regions for administrative purposes. These regions correspond with the three regions used by the International Telecommunications Union for its regulatory purposes, but the IARU has also used these regions for sports administration. The first IARU Region I (Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and ex-USSR) Championship was held in 1993 in Chtelnica, Slovakia,[dead link][2] the first IARU Region III (Asia and Oceania) Championship was held in 1993 in Beijing, China,[dead link][4] and the first IARU Region II (North and South America) Championship was held in 1999 in Portland, Oregon, USA.[3] In addition to participation in international events, most nations with active ARDF organizations hold annual national championships using the IARU rules.

随着这项运动在20世纪60年代和70年代的发展,每个国家制定了一套规章制度。为更清晰地界定并与国际比赛规则相一致,这种需要促进了国际业余无线电联盟70年代末(IARU)成立。在1980年的世界锦标赛上,业余无线电测向运动第一次使用新的标准化规则。这些规则已经修订并更新,多年来,并增加了不同年龄和性别组别的比赛。[ 3 ]虽然有些差异存在,这些标准化规则一直以来全球范围的业余无线电测向竞赛使用,业余无线电联盟已成为主要的国际组织,推广这项运动。为了便于管理,业余无线电联盟把世界分为三个区域这些地区所使用的三个区域对应业余无线电国际联盟为监管,但IARU还利用这些地区的体育管理。第一IARU一区(欧洲,非洲,在中东前苏联)锦标赛于1993年举行的Chtelnica,斯洛伐克,死链接 ] [ 2 ]的第一个业余无线电联盟三区(亚洲和大洋洲)锦标赛举行1993年北京,中国,死链接 ] [ 4 ]和第一IARU二区(北美和南美)锦标赛于1999年举行的波特兰,俄勒冈州,美国。[ 3 ]除了参与国际赛事,大多数国家与活跃的业余无线电测向机构持有使用业余无线电联盟规则一年一度的全国冠军。

ARDF is a sport that spans much of the globe. In 2012 over 570 athletes from thirty-three countries, representing four continents, entered the 16th World Championships held in Kopaonik, Serbia [5]Organized ARDF competitions can be found in almost every European country and in all the nations of northern and eastern Asia. ARDF activity is also found in Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Although they represent a broad range of amateur radio interests in their nations today, several member societies of the International Amateur Radio Union were originally formed for the promotion and organization of the sport and continue to use the term radiosport in their society name. These include the Federation of Radiosport of the Republic of Armenia (FRRA),[6] the Belarusian Federation of Radioamateurs and Radiosportsmen (BFRR),[7] the Chinese Radio Sports Association (CRSA),[8]and the Mongolian Radio Sport Federation (MRSF).[9] To promote the sport, the IARU has delegated individuals as ARDF Coordinators for each IARU region to help educate and organize national radio societies and other ARDF groups, especially in nations without prior activity in the sport.

业余无线电测向是一项全球性运动。在2012年,来自四大洲33个国家超过570名运动员来到塞尔维亚[ 5 ]Kopaonik市举行的第16届世锦赛。几乎所有欧洲国家,在北部和东部地区的所有国家都可以发现有组织的业余无线电测向比赛。业余无线电测向活动还活跃在泰国澳大利亚新西兰加拿大美国虽然他们代表了他们的国家业余无线电,但是为了促进这项运动的推广,他们组织了国际业余无线电联盟还有几个成员协会,并继续使用这个词radiosport这些措施包括Radiosport联合会亚美尼亚共和国(FRRA)的,[ 6 ] Radioamateurs和Radiosportsmen的白俄罗斯联合会(BFRR),[ 7 ],中国无线电运动协会(CRSA),[ 8 ]和蒙古无线电运动协会(MRSF)。[ 9 ]为了促进这项运动,业余无线电联盟已授权人士,作为业余无线电测向协调每个IARU区域,以帮助教育和组织全国广播协会等业余无线电测向团体,尤其是在无线电测向并不普及的国家中。

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